The speedy unfold of COVID-19 in communities throughout the globe and the resurgence (second wave) counsel the potential position of asymptomatic individuals in its transmission, whereas the uncertainty over long-term immune response has potential implications for the efficacy of vaccines, consultants have mentioned.
The position of decreased use of non-pharmaceutical interventions in facilitating a second wave of COVID-19 as group engagement wanes requires additional investigation, they mentioned.
If robust supportive proof turns into accessible concerning the potential position of asymptomatic individuals within the transmission of coronavirus an infection, continued use of masks and using different public well being measures could also be advocated, in accordance with an editorial within the ICMR’s Indian Journal of Medical Research.
The editorial titled ”The enigmatic COVID-19 pandemic” has been penned by Rajesh Bhatia, former director of Communicable Diseases for WHO’s South-East Asia Regional Office, and Priya Abraham, director of ICMR-National Institute of Virology.
It talked about that throughout the early section of the pandemic, COVID-19 was presumed to be a non-relapsing illness.
“New studies suggest the possibility of repeated virologically confirmed infections. Confirmation of reactivation or reinfection and their epidemiological importance are awaited,” it mentioned.
Serosurveillance is usually a delicate instrument to find out the extent of an infection and immunity within the normal inhabitants. Only just a few field-based research have generated serosurveillance information however with inconclusive inferences.
The editorial talked about a current seroprevalence examine which confirmed that a lot of the inhabitants of Geneva, Switzerland, remained uninfected throughout this wave of the pandemic, regardless of the excessive prevalence of COVID-19 within the area.
“Such studies raise red flags on continuous susceptibility of the population to COVID-19 and inability of the virus to produce widespread immunity. It may contribute to a ‘second wave” of cases.
“The position of decreased use of non-pharmaceutical interventions in facilitating a second wave as group engagement wanes, requires additional investigation,” the experts said.
The uncertainty of long-term immune response has potential implications for the efficacy of vaccines. The real impact of vaccines on this pandemic will become evident only once it has been widely in use for a few months in different populations, they said.
As of now, vaccine is being considered as the ultimate intervention to contain the pandemic. The global race to make it available to the world has been accelerated.
Currently, there are about 165 different candidate vaccines for COVID-19 being developed around the world and several of these are in different phases of clinical trials.
Three vaccine candidates (inactivated, DNA based recombinant and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine consisting of the replication-deficient simian adenovirus vector ChAdOx) are currently in early phases of human trials in India, the editorial said.
“Commercial manufacturing of COVID-19 vaccine and potential imports are prone to begin by the top of 2020,” it said.
Global procurement and distribution of vaccine to ensure its universal access has been planned by the WHO, Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations (GAVI) and Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations.
India has developed a blueprint for efficient deployment of the vaccine, supported by IT-based vaccine tracker.
“Immunizing all the inhabitants, prioritizing excessive danger segments, assuring high quality in logistics and enterprise post-vaccination surveillance for hostile results and impression on illness burden shall be large challenges for any well being system,” it highlighted.
In the absence of specific antiviral drugs or vaccines, non-pharmaceutical interventions undertaken by the communities assumed critical importance in curtailing viral transmission.
“Community engagement, particularly of poor and illiterate, is at all times tough to make sure”, it mentioned.